A group of related but distinct philosophies, began in the late 20th century [1900s], opposing exalted forms of individualism. Not necessarily hostile to social liberalism or even social democracy.
Communitarianism emphasizes the need to 'balance' individual rights and interests with that of the community as a whole, and that individual people (or citizens) are shaped by the cultures and values of their communities.
In other words Communitarianism is definitively an 'anti-individualist' social engineering ideology that emphasizes "Collective Rights" IE the "Common Good" above individual rights.
Though the term communitarianism is of 20th-century origin, it is derived from the 1840s term communitarian, which was coined by Goodwyn Barmby to refer to one who was a member or advocate of a communalist society. The modern use of the term is a redefinition of the original sense. Many communitarians trace their philosophy to earlier thinkers. The term is primarily used in two senses:
1. Philosophical Communitarianism considers Classical Liberalism(Z) to be Ontologically(A) and epistemologically(B) incoherent, and opposes it on those grounds
Unlike Classical Liberalism, which construes communities as originating from the voluntary acts of pre-community individuals, it emphasizes the role of the community in defining and shaping individuals.
(Z) Classical Liberalism: An ideology committed to the principles of Natural Law, Limited Government, Free Markets and The Primacy of the the Individual, over the Collective.
(A) Ontology: The branch of metaphysics(a2) that studies the nature of existence or being as such
(B) Epistemology: investigating the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge
(a2) Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that deals with underlying 'theoretical' and 'first' principles; the relation of 'universals' to 'particulars', and the teleological(a3) doctrine of causation (a3) Teleology: The study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature. The belief that purpose and design are a part of or are apparent in nature. (in vitalist philosophy) the doctrine that phenomena are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals of self-realization
Communitarians believe that the value of community is not sufficiently recognized in liberal theories of justice.
2. Ideological Communitarianism is characterized as a radical "centrist" ideology that is sometimes marked by leftism on economic issues and moralism or conservatism on social issues.[Using the pathetic and fake conventional political spectrum of Communism vs Fascism, the third way is yet another Statism 'Progressivism'] This usage was coined recently. When the term is capitalized, it usually refers to the Responsive Communitarian movement of Amitai Etzioni and other philosophers.
Central to the communitarian philosophy is the concept of positive rights, which are rights or guarantees to certain things. These may include state subsidized education, state-subsidized housing, a safe and clean environment, universal health care, and even the right to a job with the concomitant(C) obligation of the government or individuals to provide one. To this end, communitarians generally support social security programs, public works programs, and laws limiting such things as pollution.
(C) Concomitant: Synonymous with "Associated"; existing or occurring with something else, often in a lesser way
A common objection is that by providing such rights, communitarians violate the negative rights of the citizens; rights to not have something done for you. For example, taxation to pay for such programs as described above dispossesses individuals of property. Proponents of positive rights, by attributing the protection of negative rights to the society rather than the government, respond that 'individuals would not have any rights in the absence of societies'—a central tenet of communitarianism—and thus have a personal responsibility to give something back to it. Some have viewed this as a negation of natural rights. However, what is or is not a "natural right" is a source of contention in modern politics, as well as historically; for example, whether or not universal health care, private property or protection from polluters can be considered a birthright.
Alternatively, some agree that negative rights may be violated by a government action, but argue that it is justifiable if the positive rights protected outweigh the negative rights lost. In the same vein, supporters of positive rights further argue that negative rights are irrelevant in their absence. Moreover, some communitarians "experience this less as a case of being used for others' ends and more as 'a way of contributing to the purposes of a community I regard as my own'.
According to scholar Peter Sutch, the principal criticisms of communitarianism are:
That communitarianism leads necessarily to moral relativism. That this relativism leads necessarily to a re-indorsement of the status quo in international politics, and that such a position relies upon a discredited ontological argument that posits the foundational status of the community or state
William Bradford And The Plymouth Plantation/Colony
March 19, 1590 - May 9, 1657
Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what popular American culture now views as the first Thanksgiving.
The Plymouth Colony was established by Separatist Pilgrims who had travelled from Europe in order to flee religious persecution and establish a religious community separate from the Church of England. The social and legal systems of the colony were tied to their religious beliefs as well as English Common Law. The presence of secular planters ("The Strangers") hired by the London merchant investors who funded their venture led to tension and factionalization in the fledgling settlement, especially because of the policies of land use and profit-sharing.
In this primarily religious-based community, the communist-like principle used by the "primitive" Christian Church as described in the Acts of the Apostles ("all things be held in common") was used as a basis for the contract agreed upon by the venture and its investors.
The first winter in the new colony was a terrible experience. Half the colonists perished, including the colony's leader, John Carver. Bradford was selected as his replacement on the spring of 1621. From this point, his story is inextricably linked with the history of the Plymouth Colony.
In 'History of Plymouth Plantation,' the governor of the colony, William Bradford, reported that the colonists went hungry for years, because they refused to work in the fields. They preferred instead to steal food. He says the colony was riddled with "corruption," and with "confusion and discontent." The crops were small because "much was stolen both by night and day, before it became scarce eatable."
In the harvest feasts of 1621 and 1622, "all had their hungry bellies filled," but only briefly. The prevailing condition during those years was not the abundance the official story claims, it was famine and death. The first "Thanksgiving" was not so much a celebration as it was the last meal of condemned men.
But in subsequent years something changes. The harvest of 1623 was different. Suddenly, "instead of famine now God gave them plenty," Bradford wrote, "and the face of things was changed, to the rejoicing of the hearts of many, for which they blessed God." Thereafter, he wrote, "any general want or famine hath not been amongst them since to this day." In fact, in 1624, so much food was produced that the colonists were able to begin exporting corn.
Due to insufficient corn production and the discontent of the single young men who resented having to provide for other men's wives and children, Bradford changed the original communal use of land and equal division of the harvest and divided the land in plots to be temporarily assigned to individual families who would retain their harvest for themselves. According to Bradford, this resulted in increased productivity and social stability:
At length, after much debate of things, the Governor (with the advice of the chiefest amongst them) gave way that they should set corn every man for his own particular, and in that regard trust to themselves [...] This had very good success, for it made all hands very industrious, so as much more corn was planted than otherwise would have been by any means the Governor or any other could use, and saved him a great deal of trouble, and gave far better content. The women now went willingly into the field, and took their little ones with them to set corn; which before would allege weakness and inability; whom to have compelled would have been thought great tyranny and oppression.
After the poor harvest of 1622, writes Bradford, "they began to think how they might raise as much corn as they could, and obtain a better crop." They began to question their form of economic organization, Which had required that "all profits and benefits that are got by trade, working, fishing, or any other means" were to be placed in the common stock of the colony, and that, "all such persons as are of this colony, are to have their meat, drink, apparel, and all provisions out of the common stock." A person was to put into the common stock all he could, and take out only what he needed.
This "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need" was an early form of socialism, and it is why the Pilgrims were starving. Bradford writes that "young men that are most able and fit for labor and service" complained about being forced to "spend their time and strength to work for other men's wives and children." Also, "the strong, or man of parts, had no more in division of victuals and clothes, than he that was weak." So the young and strong refused to work and the total amount of food produced was never adequate.
To rectify this situation, in 1623 Bradford abolished socialism. He gave each household a parcel of land and told them they could keep what they produced, or trade it away as they saw fit. In other words, he replaced socialism with a free market, and that was the end of famines.
Many early groups of colonists set up socialist states, all with the same terrible results
Robert Owen And New Harmony
(14 May 1771–17 November 1858)
Owenism is a term used to represent the Utopian socialist philosophy of Robert Owen.
He and his followers (Owenites) purchased the town of Harmonie in Posey County, Indiana, in 1825. They hoped to establish a model communal village, which they named New Harmony, where they tried to practice Owen's theories about cooperative living.
The experiment was established in 1825 and dissolved in 1829 due to constant quarrels. The town banned money and other commodities. Individualist anarchist Josiah Warren, who was one of the original participants in the New Harmony Society, asserted that the community was doomed to failure due to a lack of individual sovereignty and private property. He wrote of the community: "It seemed that the difference of opinion, tastes and purposes increased just in proportion to the demand for conformity. Two years were worn out in this way; at the end of which, I believe that not more than three persons had the least hope of success. Most of the experimenters left in despair of all reforms, and conservatism felt itself confirmed. We had tried every conceivable form of organization and government. We had a world in miniature. --we had enacted the French revolution over again with despairing hearts instead of corpses as a result. ...It appeared that it was nature's own inherent law of diversity that had conquered us ...our 'united interests' were directly at war with the individualities of persons and circumstances and the instinct of self-preservation... and it was evident that just in proportion to the contact of persons or interests, so are concessions and compromises indispensable." (Periodical Letter II 1856).
Owenites fired bricks to build it, but construction never took place.
(7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837)
French Utopian Socialist Philosopher
Fourier is credited by modern scholars with having originated the word féminisme in 1837
As early as 1808, he had argued, in the Theory of the Four Movements, that the extension of the liberty of women was the general principle of all social progress, though he disdained any attachment to a discourse of 'equal rights'.
Fourier inspired the founding of the communist community called La Reunion near present-day Dallas, Texas as well as several other communities within the United States of America, such as the North American Phalanx in New Jersey and Community Place and five others in New York State.
Fourier declared that concern and cooperation were the secrets of social success. He believed that a society that cooperated would see an immense improvement in their productivity levels. Workers would be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution. Fourier saw such cooperation occurring in communities he called "phalanxes," based around structures called Phalanstères or "grand hotels." These buildings were four level apartment complexes where the richest had the uppermost apartments and the poorest enjoyed a ground floor residence. Wealth was determined by one's job; jobs were assigned based on the interests and desires of the individual. There were incentives: jobs people might not enjoy doing would receive higher pay. Fourier considered trade, which he associated with Jews, to be the "source of all evil" and advocated that Jews be forced to perform farm work in the phalansteries.
Fourier characterized poverty (not inequality) as the principal cause of disorder in society, and he proposed to eradicate it by sufficiently high wages and by a "decent minimum" for those who were not able to work.
He believed that there were twelve common passions which resulted in 810 types of character, so the ideal phalanx would have exactly 1620 people. One day there would be six million of these, loosely ruled by a world "omniarch", or (later) a World Congress of Phalanxes. He had a touching concern for the sexually rejected–jilted suitors would be led away by a corps of "fairies" who would soon cure them of their lovesickness, and visitors could consult the card-index of personality types for suitable partners for casual sex. He also defended homosexuality as a personal preference for some people.
Fourier was also a supporter of women's rights in a time period where influences like Jean-Jacques Rousseau were prevalent. Fourier believed that all important jobs should be open to women on the basis of skill and aptitude rather than closed on account of gender. He spoke of women as individuals, not as half the human couple. Fourier saw that traditional marriage could potentially hurt woman's rights as human beings and thus never married.
Fourier's concern was to liberate every human individual, man, woman, and child, in two senses: Education and the liberation of human passion.
On Education, Fourier felt that "civilized" parents and teachers saw children as little idlers. Fourier felt that this way of thinking was wrong. He felt that children as early as age two and three were very industrious. He listed the dominant tastes in all children to include, but not limited to:
Rummaging or inclination to handle everything, examine everything, look through everything, to constantly change occupations; Industrial commotion, taste for noisy occupations; Aping or imitative mania.
Industrial miniature, a taste for miniature workshops. Progressive attraction of the weak toward the strong.
Fourier was deeply disturbed by the disorder of his time and wanted to stabilize the course of events which surrounded him. Fourier saw his fellow human beings living in a world full of strife, chaos, and disorder.
Fourier is best remembered for his writings on a new world order based on unity of action and harmonious collaboration. He is also known for certain Utopian pronouncements, such as that the seas would lose their salinity and turn to lemonade, and that the North Pole would be milder than the Mediterranean in a future phase of Perfect Harmony.
CPU's 1960s Platform Vs Politics of Today
What did the Communist Party USA say they wanted to do in 1963? Here's a few that stand out:
No. 3: Develop the illusion that total disarmament [by] the United States would be a demonstration of moral strength
No. 15: Capture one or both of the political parties in the United States
No. 17: Get control of the schools. Use them as transmission belts for socialism and current Communist propaganda. Soften the curriculum. Get control of teachers' associations. Put the party line in textbooks
No. 18: Gain control of all student newspapers
No. 19: Use student riots to foment public protests against programs or organizations which are under Communist attack
No. 20: Infiltrate the press. Get control of book-review assignments, editorial writing, policymaking positions
No. 21: Gain control of key positions in radio, TV and motion pictures
No. 27: Infiltrate the churches and replace revealed religion with "social" religion
No. 28: Eliminate prayer or any phase of religious expression in the schools on the ground that it violates the principle of "separation of church and state"
No. 29: Discredit the American Constitution by calling it inadequate, old-fashioned, out of step with modern needs, a hindrance to cooperation between nations on a worldwide basis
No. 30: Discredit the American Founding Fathers. Present them as selfish aristocrats who had no concern for the "common man"
No. 36: Infiltrate and gain control of more unions
No. 37: Infiltrate and gain control of big business
No. 40: Discredit the family as an institution. Encourage promiscuity and easy divorce
This was the to-do list for the communists in the 1960s. Compare that to the U.S. Constitution — which one are we following?
"Kibbutzim in the early days tried to be self-sufficient in all agricultural goods, from eggs to dairy to fruits to meats, but realized this was not possible. Land was generally provided by the Jewish National Fund. Later, they became dependent on government subsidies."http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kibbutzim
"The question was not whether group settlement was preferable to individual settlement; it was rather one of either group settlement or no settlement at all."
"In soliciting donations, kibbutzim and other Zionist settlement activities presented themselves as "making the desert bloom."
This means the Kibbutzim are just "Feudalism/war Socialism" which has always 'worked', just not for any goals that the participants would much care for if the threat ever ended.
"most of these writings misunderstood essential aspects of the kibbutz. In particular,Without a proper and complete time line I can't deduce exactly how & why, but it would seem the Kabbutzim have fallen quite short of "Success" by any remote definition. (Interesting topic tho)
they did not treat the essentially non-democratic and unchanging higher echelons of kibbutz
leaders and the numerous extraterritorial organizations and enterprises controlled by this elite"
"the Kibbutz societal involvement engendered profound problems, but scholars did not treat them;
nor did they treat the essentially non-democratic and unchanging higher echelons of Kibbutz
leaders whose control of these organizations enhanced the movement's bureaucratization,
oligarchization and conservatism. As these organizations adopted low-trust, low-moral
cultures contrary to Kibbutz high-trust cultures and high-moral leadership, exposure of their
cultures could have spoiled the kibbutz image of a progressive society."
Jacque Fresco and The Venus Project
Jacque Fresco is an industrial designer and social engineer, author, lecturer, futurist, and inventor, and has worked as both designer and inventor in a wide range of fields spanning from biomedical innovations to totally integrated social systems. Born March 13, 1916 (1916-03-13) (age 93)
Jacque Fresco's visions of the future through a website and by distributing videos and literature with the goal to improve society by moving towards a resource-based economy and the design of sustainable cities, energy efficiency, natural resource management and advanced automation, focusing on the benefits it will bring to society. The organization was started by Jacque Fresco and Roxanne Meadows in 1995, while their website claims The Project started around 1975. Future by Design, a film about the life and work of Jacque Fresco, was produced in 2006. The name of the organization originates from Venus, Florida, where its 21-acre (8.5-hectare research center is located, near Lake Okeechobee. Within the center are ten buildings, designed by Fresco, which showcase the architecture of the project.
The Venus Project was founded on the idea that poverty, crime, corruption and war are caused by the neuroses and scarcity created by the present world's profit-driven economic system, a structure which also stifles the progress of socially-beneficial technology. The progression of technology, if it were carried on independent of its profitability, Fresco theorizes, would make more resources available to more people by producing an abundance of products and materials. This new-found abundance of resources would reduce the human tendency toward independence, corruption, and greed, and instead rely on people helping each other. Fresco believes it is now possible to achieve a society in which people would live "longer, healthier, and more meaningful lives." Fresco believes the monetary system and the processes associated with it, such as labour and competition, is damaging to society and holds people back from their true potential. He states his ideas would maximally benefit the greatest number of people. He claims some of his ideas stem from his formative years during the Great Depression. Fresco believes the current global economic situation, being similar but not as severe as the Great Depression, will lead people away from free-market economics and capitalism and make them lose confidence in the monetary establishment.
Fundamental to the project is the elimination of the current money-based economy in favor of a Resourse Based economy.
Jacque Fresco is a self-educated social engineer, industrial designer, author, lecturer, futurist, inventor, and the creator of The Venus Project. Fresco has worked as both designer and inventor in a wide range of fields spanning biomedical innovations and integrated social systems. He believes his ideas would maximally benefit the greatest number of people and he states some of his influence stems from his formative years during the Great Depression. The Venus Project was started in the mid-1970s by Fresco and his partner, Roxanne Meadows. The film Future by Design was produced in 2006 describing his life and work. Fresco writes and lectures extensively on subjects ranging from the holistic design of sustainable cities, energy efficiency, natural resource management and advanced automation, focusing on the benefits it will bring to society.
a term coined by sociologist Paul H. Ray and psychologist Sherry Ruth Anderson to describe a large segment in Western society that has recently developed beyond the standard paradigm of Modernists versus Traditionalists or Conservatists. The concept was presented in their book The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World (2000), where they claim to have found that 50 million adult Americans (slightly over one quarter of the adult population) can now be identified as belonging to this group. They estimated that there were another 80–90 million Cultural Creatives in Europe
as of 2000.
Core Cultural Creative
Just under half of the CC population, this segment comprises the more educated, leading-edge thinkers. This group includes many writers, artists, musicians, psychotherapists, feminists, alternative health care providers and other professionals. They combine a serious concern for their inner life with a strong passion for social activism.
Green Cultural CreativeThe more secular and extroverted wing of the Cultural Creatives. They tend to follow the opinions of the Core group and have a more conventional religious outlook. Their world views are less thought out than the Core group and less intensely held.
CharacteristicsRay and Anderson created a questionnaire to identify Cultural Creatives in Western society. The below characteristics were identified as qualities of a Cultural Creative. Agreement with 10 or more indicates status as a Cultural Creative.
- love of nature and deep caring about its preservation, and its natural balance. (Environmentalism)
- strong awareness of the planet-wide issues (i.e. global warming[Debunked], poverty, overpopulation, etc.) and a desire to see more action on them
- being active themselves as well ( e.g. cradle2cradle principal)
- willingness to pay higher taxes or spend more money for goods if that money went to improving the environment (Environmentalism... But of which stripe?)
- heavy emphasis on the importance of developing and maintaining relationships
- heavy emphasis on the importance of helping others and developing their unique gifts
- volunteer with one or more good causes (Beware the DoGooders)
- intense interest in spiritual and psychological development (Psychiatrists are often more crazy than their patients ;)
- see spirituality as an important aspect of life, but worry about religious fundamentalism (Anti Freedom of Religion?)
- desire equity for women/men in business, life and politics
- concern and support of the wellbeing( oa. freedom ) of all women and children (Anti Adult Male, Sexist Feminism)
- want politics and government to spend more money on education, community programs and the support of a more ecologically sustainable future (Pro Govt Redistribution of Wealth if for "The Right Cause")
- are unhappy with the left and right in politics (NonPartisan Anti Party Politcs, but incidently anti Capitalism)
- optimism towards the future
- want to be involved in creating a new and better way of life
- are concerned with big business and the means they use to generate profits, including destroying the environment and exploiting poorer countries (Anti international Capitalism)
- Support change of goods and means ,and 2hand use, concidering the environment.unlikely to overspend or be in heavy debt
- dislike the emphasis of modern cultures on making it and success, on consuming and making money (Anti Economic Meritocracy)
- like people, places and things that are different or exotic (Xenophelia)
The Zeitgeist Movement Zeitgeist literally "the spirit of the times" and/or "the spirit of the age.", is the title of a Politically Populist Utopianism Movement.
The Venus Project is featured prominently in the 2008 documentary film Zeitgeist: Addendum, as a possible solution to the global problems explained in the first film and first half of the second film. The film premiered at the 5th Annual Artivist Film Festival in Los Angeles, California on October 2, 2008, winning their highest award, and it was released online for free on Google video on October 4, 2008.. Following the movie The Zeitgeist Movement was established to aid the transition from a monetary based economy to a resource-based economy.